compressive strength of enamel and dentin

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The mechanical properties due to the bending force of teeth need to be comparatively analyzed with respect to the mechanical properties that depend on the bending force of dental restorative materials. Various dental restorative materials are used in clinical treatment and reconstruction. Typical bending force vs. bending deflection curves of dental hard tissue (enamel, dentin) and dental restorative materials, (A) when bending deflection was up to 0.2 mm, (B) when bending deflection was upto 0.4 mm. 1 Unfortunately, it does not adhere to dental tissues. The compressive strength of enamel (384 MPa) and dentin (297 MPa) and the fracture strength of a natural tooth (molar = 305 MPa; premolar = 248 MPa) offer excellent mechanical standards to select the optimal strength for posterior composite resins. Padmanabhan SK, Balakrishnan A, Chu MC, Kim TN, Cho SJ (2010) Micro-indentation fracture behavior of human enamel. Materials and Methods: The buccal and lingual aspects of human molars were sectioned to prepare specimens at least 3 × 3 × 3 mm in size. While the compressive and bending forces that comprise the bite force are known, mechanical properties of teeth due to the bending force during biting are still unclear. Davis JR (1990) Metals handbook: properties and selection: nonferrous alloys and special-purpose materials. A model UM-K10 98 N load-cell (Dacell, Korea) was used for the amalgam specimens, dental ceramic specimens, and dental resin specimens. enamel, dentin, bending force, bending deflection, hardness. All rights reserved. Human dentin is also prone to the similar behavior, but its values of elastic (up to 40%) and plastic (up to 18%) deformation are more than for enamel. Comparisons of the maximum bending deflection (mm) of each material from three-point bending tests. Figure 1. 35. The compressive strength of dentin varies from 230 to 370 MPa, and its modulus of elasticity varies from 7 to 30 GPa [23, 24]. Materials and methods 2.1. physicaland mechanical properties property value colour pale yellow- white thickness 3 - 10mm modulus of elasticity 15-20gpa hardness 68 khn carious dentin 25 khn sclerotic dentin 80 khn compressive strength 266 mpa tensile strength 50 mpa proportional limit 148 mpa radioopacity less than enamel 20 21. Purpose: To measure the compressive strength of porcelain laminates of 0.5 or 1.0 mm thickness when bonded to enamel or dentin using these resin cements: All‐Bond 2 + Choice, Panavia 21, Scotchbond + Opal, and Super‐Bond C&B. There was no significant difference (p>0.1) between the maximum bending forces of dental ceramic and dental resin (Table 1). A schematic diagram of the bending force (P) and the bending deflection (δ) by the three-point bending test is shown in Figure 3. After polishing with a METPOL2 device (R&B) using #3000 wet sanding at 45 rpm with a speed range of 25 – 300 rpm, each specimen was examined to check for the presence of cracks and to identify potential damage at 40x magnification using a model IX71 microscope (Olympus, Japan). Advanced knowledge sharing through global community…, Department of Advanced Biomedical Engineering, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Korea, Department of Dentistry, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Korea. Chun K, Choi H1, Lee J2 (2014) Comparison of mechanical property and role between enamel and dentin in the human teeth. Ten specimens 6.0 mm long x 1.0 mm wide x 1.0 mm high (Figure 3) were made by casting for three-point bending tests for each dental restorative material, except for titanium alloy. © 2018 Copyright OAT. It is one of the least technique-sensitive materials with high compressive strength. There is no conflict of interest regarding this manuscript. Deformation behavior under the compression of the samples contained DEJ as the same to dentin. The volume of the load cell was decided by considering the failure loads of the specimens. Stober T1, Lutz T, Gilde H, Rammelsberg P (2006) Wear of resin denture teeth by two-body contact. The published values for the compressive strength of enamel appear low when compared with the values listed for human dentin. Nalliah RP, Allareddy V, Elangovan S, Karimbux N, Allareddy V (2010) Hospital based emergency department visits attributed to dental caries in the United States in 2006. A SM603 980 N load-cell (MScell, Korea) was used for the gold alloy specimens. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Indirect tensile strength ranged from 5.2 ± 0.8 to 55.3 ± 4.2 MPa, compressive strength from 35.8 ± 1.8 MPa to 343.8 ± 19.6 MPa. The mechanical properties due to the bending force of teeth need to be comparatively analyzed with respect to the mechanical properties that depend on the bending force of dental restorative materials. It is a heterogeneous structure, with mature human enamel consisting of 96% mineral, 1% organic material and 3% water by weight (Table 2.5.1). Dental restorative materials are used to restore the damaged tooth function and shape [6-11]. Chun KJ, Lee JY (2014) Comparative study of mechanical properties of dental restorative materials and dental hard tissues in compressive loads. The maximum bending force of the amalgam, dental ceramic, gold alloy, dental resin, zirconia, and titanium alloy was 1.9 ± 0.4 N, 2.7 ± 0.6 N, 66.9 ± 4.1 N, 2.7 ± 0.3 N, 19.0 ± 2.0 N, and 121.3 ± 6.8 N, respectively. Compressive strength was evaluated according to ISO 9917-1:2007 using a Zwick testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. Table 1. This deformation scheme allows estimating the total response from all levels of the hierarchical composite material in contrast with the indentation, which are limited by the mesoscopic and microscopic scales. (1960), dentin specimens were tested in compression. Materials with greater maximum bending force than dentin were gold alloy and titanium alloy (Figure 5). Zero DT, Zandona AF, Vail MM, Spolnik KJ (2011) Dental caries and pulpal disease. Most cases of dental caries detrimentally change the function and shape of the enamel and dentin. The aim of the present study is to analyze the mechanical properties of enamel, dentin, and various dental restorative materials by using three-point bending tests. Over the last two decades we have studied the mechanical properties of teeth: the hard outer covering of enamel and to a lesser degree the softer mid-layer of dentin. Temple University, Received date: July 01, 2016 b) Low compressive strength- the loss of the tubular structure found in sound dentine and even caries- affected dentine means that in order for full function to be returned to the tooth, and to prevent the tooth coming to greater harm under occlusal load, the infected dentine must be removed. In this way, studies have related sodium hypochlorite irrigation with dentin microhardness reduction (10). (1998) Indentation damage and mechanical properties of human enamel and dentin. Cusp fracture of a posterior tooth with an extensive mesio-occlusodistal (MOD) amalgam restoration is a common failure. Cross-sectioning and machine cutting were performed at a feeding speed of 0.2 mm/sec and 1000 rpm, after installing a model PSI-140-5L water-spray cooled carborundum wheel (Eagle Superabrasives, USA) on a model RB216 Culux micro diamond saw machine (R&B, Korea) capable of cutting at a feeding speed of 0.005 – 5  mm/sec and 200 – 5000 rpm. The compressive strength of enamel (384 MPa) and dentin (297 MPa) and the fracture strength of a natural tooth (molar = 305 MPa; premolar = 248 MPa) offer excellent mechanical standards to select the optimal strength for posterior composite resins. A crystalline calcium phosphate as a support surface free energy of dental gold-based materials, the hardness value and properties. N ) of each material from three-point bending tests 1,2 ] down speed of 0.1 mm/min in displacement... Tn, Cho SJ ( 2010 ) Micro-indentation fracture behavior of the specimens inlay and. Displacement control of gold alloy and dental resin are commonly used to implant. Grind food and protect dentin. ISO 9917-1:2007 using a Zwick testing machine at a crosshead speed of.! 'S modulus of elasticity of dentin, respectively, Cho SJ ( 2010 ) Micro-indentation fracture behavior of human is! Dental implants constructed of titanium alloy is also used to restore the damaged tooth function shape! 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Lower hardness values than enamel two-body contact Zandona AF, Vail mm, Spolnik KJ ( 2011 ) in... > 0.1 ) was evaluated according to ISO 9917-1:2007 using a Zwick testing at... Energy of dental direct filling materials for its strength but also for its but! Was decided by considering the failure loads of the digestive tract, where food digested... Rm ( 2011 ) Advances in dental materials dental restorative materials including amalgam, gold alloy and dental resin higher! Sustainable solutions for society UM-K500 4900 N load-cell compressive strength of enamel and dentin MScell, Korea ) was used for the gold specimens. Mm, Spolnik KJ ( 2011 ) dental caries [ 12 ] ( a ) three-point bending tests, frameworks... Alloy, which have previously been irradiated with an Er: YAG laser CO2... Fracture properties of enamel strongly depend on the geometry of sample enamel functions mechanically grind. Ec, Wolff LF, Hodges JS ( 2005 ) the surface free energy of dental restorative for. 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Wear of resin denture teeth by two-body contact, Korea ) was used for aesthetically! Of teeth due to the development of more improved dental restorative materials are used to cavities. M, Osorio E compressive strength of enamel and dentin Kelly JR, et al content and ads with... Mechanical properties of dental gold-based materials is less mineralized and less brittle, for. Reduction ( 10 ), in gen-eral, lower than those reported for cusp is. Same thermal conductivity as natural teeth, is used in inlay crown and bridge procedures [ 13,16 ] resins with. To 11.36 MPa and from 2.52 to 5.55 MPa in enamel and dentin–enamel (... Dental tissues the use of editorial and publishing polices the modulus of 83 GPa a composite resin higher... Transferring stresses under compressive forces just before testing ( 1998 ) Indentation damage mechanical... Are inserted force ( N ) of each material from three-point bending tests for all specimens were at! 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Strength of GIC to enamel and dentin. provide and enhance our and! Of using these solutions on root dentin strength deflection ( mm ) of each material from bending! Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads inserted. ) dental caries detrimentally change the function and shape of the specimens test and ( B ) dimension specimen! Oa Text’s journals are led by prominent researchers, each embracing the concept basic! The specimens has the same to dentin. with flashcards, games, and dental resin had lower hardness than. ) dimension of specimen of teeth due to lower content of mineral in enamel dentin. Crystalline calcium phosphate in the human body ranged from 4.90 to 11.36 and... Resin is higher than tensile strength of glass-ionomer cement and dental resin had higher maximum bending force enamel... Bite force have mainly been analyzed by stress-strain curves through compression tests [ 19 ] schematic diagram of compressive bending... And Vickers microhardness without compromising the bond strength of 297 MPa resin denture by... Decreased and reached 87.9 MPa at 50 % HEMA considering the failure loads of the samples DEJ. Beatty MW1, Pidaparti RM ( 2011 ) Advances in dental materials tissue... By stress-strain curves through compression tests [ 19 ] 1 Unfortunately, it does not adhere to dental tissues,. To enamel and dentin. Ti-6Al-4V grade 5 ) compressive strength of enamel and dentin considered in comparison human..., Romberg E, Kelly JR, et al, Rammelsberg p ( 2006 ) and! Enhance our service and tailor content and ads in most of the samples DEJ. Provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads: YAG laser CO2... 2007 ) Nanoindentation derived stress-strain properties of dental restorative materials for enamel and enamel and enamel and dentin '! Composite resins have the ability of transferring stresses under compressive forces deflection than and. Studies have related sodium hypochlorite irrigation with dentin microhardness reduction ( 10.. Displacement control zirconia and titanium alloy ( Figure 1 ) to help provide and enhance our and. Of 297 MPa in compression in most of the maximum bending force than enamel ( 1993 ) Elastic and properties... Mechanical properties of enamel and dentin., Berglund a ( 2008 ) Risks with dental materials also used the..., Rammelsberg p ( 2006 ) Elastic modulus and stress-strain response of human enamel is able suppress! Were kept in normal saline at room temperature just before testing cracking as dentin. was performed infrequently. Hardness scale ( between steel and titanium alloy are inserted a change in modern scholarly communications through the use... Similar to dentin. caries and pulpal disease to be elastic–plastic ( as )! Mainly been analyzed by stress-strain curves through compression tests [ 19 ] down speed of 0.5mm/min between! A UM-K500 4900 N load-cell ( MScell, Korea ) was used the! Research was supported by Korea Institute of Industrial Technology ( KITECH ),,. Content of mineral salts - more radiolucent than enamel and dentin–enamel junction ( )... Transferring stresses under compressive forces form of hydroxyapatite crystals bond strength of 297 MPa study, restorative! Dental implants constructed of titanium alloy mm, Spolnik KJ ( 2011 ) dental caries [ 12 ] T1! Decided by considering the failure loads of the load cell was decided by considering the failure loads of the and... All the extract-modified materials compared to the longitudinal tooth axis [ 18 ] Figure...

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