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The term was popularised by the linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement, which asserted the common heritage and cultural unity of the Scandinavian countries and rose to prominence in the 1830s. Finland is officially bilingual, with Finnish and Swedish having mostly the same status at national level. Following a Swedish invasion during the summer, the peace conditions of the Convention of Moss (14 August 1814) specified that king Christian Frederik had to resign, but Norway would keep its independence and its constitution within a personal union with Sweden. The warmest temperature ever recorded in Scandinavia is 38.0 °C in Målilla (Sweden). farbigen Illustrationen, ordentlicher Zustand. The end of the Scandinavian political movement came when Denmark was denied the military support promised from Sweden and Norway to annex the (Danish) Duchy of Schleswig, which together with the (German) Duchy of Holstein had been in personal union with Denmark. The Dano-Norwegians were more concerned about preserving their continued neutrality and the entire Dano-Norwegian army was therefore gathered at Danevirke in the event of a French attack, leaving undefended. Denmark–Sweden relations relate to Denmark and Sweden.Both of these countries have a very long history together. Rules are changing all the time, so check the latest on the popular travel destinations of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland and Iceland below. Quiz starten! World Population Prospects: 2019 Revision. The Sami languages are indigenous minority languages in Scandinavia. Find all the transport options for your trip from Norway to Denmark right here. Population, total - Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland ( 1 ) United Nations Population Division. Following a Swedish invasion, Norway was forced to accept a personal union between Sweden and Norway, but retained its liberal constitution and separate institutions, except for the foreign service. Denmark–Norway maintained numerous colonies from the 17th to 19th centuries over various parts around India. The latter option was quickly discarded, and a power-struggle ensued between the supporters of Christian of Denmark and Charles of Sweden. Denmark was poorly prepared for the war, and Norway was reluctant to attack Sweden, which left the Swedes in a good position. In the 1807 attack on Copenhagen the British captured the entire Dano-Norwegian navy, burning most of the fleet and incorporating the remaining ships into the Royal Navy. Norway's old royal line had died out with the death of Olav IV in 1387, but Norway's remaining a hereditary kingdom became an important factor for the Oldenburg dynasty of Denmark–Norway in its struggles to win elections as kings of Denmark. Skandinavien und Deutschland - Denmark, Norway and Sweden - also West- and East Germany - Michel Gebraucht, MH (ungebraucht), MNH (postfrisch) Scandinavia - collection/stockbook from Germany and small collection from East-Germany. However, Finnish is also spoken as a recognized minority language in Sweden, including in distinctive varieties sometimes known as Meänkieli. The war ended as foreseen with a Swedish victory, and with the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, Denmark–Norway had to cede some of their territories, including Norwegian territories Jemtland, Herjedalen and Idre & Serna, and the Danish Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Ösel. Notable are the Norwegian fjords, the Scandinavian Mountains, the flat, low areas in Denmark and the archipelagos of Sweden and Norway. This war resulted in Finland (formerly the eastern third of Sweden) becoming the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 and Norway (de jure in union with Denmark since 1387, although de facto treated as a province) becoming independent in 1814, but thereafter swiftly forced to accept a personal union with Sweden. At its height the empire was about 2,655,564.76 km2 (1,025,319 sq mi)[note 1].  In Beowulf, the forms Scedenige and Scedeland are used while the Alfredian translation of Orosius and Wulfstan's travel accounts used the Old English Sconeg.. The central part – from Oslo to Stockholm – has a humid continental climate (Dfb), which gradually gives way to subarctic climate (Dfc) further north and cool marine west coast climate (Cfc) along the northwestern coast. Norway thereafter entered into a much looser personal union with Sweden as one of two equal kingdoms until 1905, when the union was dissolved and both kingdoms became independent. (Denmark, Norway and Sweden)) Seal of King John of Denmark, Norway and Sweden John (Danish, Norwegian and Swedish: Hans; né Johannes) (2 February 1455 – 20 February 1513) was a Scandinavian monarch under the Kalmar Union. The geography of Scandinavia is extremely varied. In 1380, Olaf II of Denmark inherited the Kingdom of Norway, titled as Olaf IV, after the death of his father Haakon VI of Norway, who was married to Olaf's mother Margrete I. Margrete I was ruler of Norway from her son's death in 1387 until her own death in 1412. After another defeat at the Battle of Wolgast and following the Treaty of Lübeck in 1629, which forbade Denmark–Norway from future intervening in German affairs, Denmark–Norways's participation in the war came to an end.  The official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board. German (in Denmark), Yiddish and Romani are recognized minority languages in parts of Scandinavia. This colony was one of the longest-lived of Denmark, until it was sold to the United States in 1917. Svennung considers the Sami name to have been introduced as a loan word from the North Germanic languages; "Skaði" is the giant stepmother of Freyr and Freyja in Norse mythology. European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia, An essay on substrate studies and the origin of Saami, Danish Institute for International Studies, "Official Site of Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America", "Introduction: Reflections on Political Thought in Finland. English dictionaries usually define the noun Scandinavian as meaning any inhabitant of Scandinavia (which might be narrowly conceived or broadly conceived). Meänkieli and Kven are Finnish dialects spoken in Swedish Lapland and Norwegian Lapland. However, two years later, in 1660, there was a follow-up treaty, the Treaty of Copenhagen, which gave Trøndelag and Bornholm back to Denmark–Norway. This causes Faroese people as well as Icelandic people to become bilingual in two very distinct North Germanic languages, making it relatively easy for them to understand the other two Mainland Scandinavian languages. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism. To find the ATM: In Norway look for "Minibank", in Denmark "Pengeautomat" and in Sweden "Bankomat" Large areas in the Scandinavian mountains have alpine tundra climate. John McKinnell comments that this etymology suggests that the goddess Skaði may have once been a personification of the geographical region of Scandinavia or associated with the underworld.  Correspondingly, some Basque scholars have presented the idea that the segment sk that appears in *Skaðinawjō is connected to the name for the Euzko peoples, akin to Basques, that populated Paleolithic Europe.  The form Scadinavia as the original home of the Langobards appears in Paulus Diaconus' Historia Langobardorum, but in other versions of Historia Langobardorum appear the forms Scadan, Scandanan, Scadanan and Scatenauge. That influence came from not just proximity but also that Denmark and later Denmark-Norway ruling over the German speaking region of Holstein, and in Sweden with its close trade with the Hanseatic League. The Scandinavian Monetary Union, established in 1873, lasted until World War I. Green, Ken, Thorsteinn Sigurjónsson, and Eivind Åsrum Skille, eds. The earliest Sami yoik texts written down refer to the world as Skadesi-suolo (north Sami) and Skađsuâl (east Sami), meaning "Skaði's island". On 20 January 1613, the Treaty of Knäred was signed in which Norway's land route from Sweden was regained by incorporating Lapland into Norway, and Swedish payment of the Älvsborg Ransom for two fortresses which Denmark had taken in the war. Three sovereign successor states have subsequently emerged from this unequal union: Denmark, Norway and Iceland. This included Norwegian province of Trøndelag and Båhuslen, all remaining Danish provinces on the Swedish mainland, and the island of Bornholm. But the creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish and the Russian. Centred on the Virgin Islands, Denmark–Norway established the Danish West Indies. Norway also wanted to leave the union in 1536, but was unable to do so due to Denmark's superior military might.. Finnish is distantly related to the Sami languages, but these are entirely different in origin to the Scandinavian languages. Denmark–Norway had several colonies, namely the Danish Gold Coast, the Nicobar Islands, Serampore, Tharangambadi, and the Danish West Indies. Tyske kancelli, https://snl.no/Norge_under_dansk_styre_-_1537-1814, "1655 Lex Regia (Kongelov) for Kongerigerne Danmark og Norge, Hertugdømmerne Slesvig og Holsten etc", Membership of International organizations, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Denmark–Norway&oldid=999745485, States and territories disestablished in 1814, Articles with Danish-language sources (da), Articles with Swedish-language sources (sv), Articles needing additional references from November 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Norwegian-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 19:19. Denmark's Jutland Peninsula is a paradise to those looking for silence and … According to one scholar, Scandinavian people share particular genetic markers with the Basque people. These changes were confirmed in the Lex Regia signed on 14 November 1665, stipulating that all power lay in the hands of the king, who was only responsible to God.. Norway kept its separate laws and some institutions, such as a royal chancellor, and separate coinage and army. It is believed that the name used by Pliny may be of West Germanic origin, originally denoting Scania. Southwesterly winds further warmed by foehn wind can give warm temperatures in narrow Norwegian fjords in winter. Icelandic Nationalism: A Non-Violent Paradigm? The Treaty of Roskilde, signed in 1658, forced Denmark–Norway to cede the Danish provinces Scania, Blekinge, Halland, Bornholm and the Norwegian provinces of Båhuslen and Trøndelag to Sweden.  The second segment of the name has been reconstructed as *awjō, meaning "land on the water" or "island". When the Danish-Norwegian king Christian III (reigned 1534–1559) included the traditionally Swedish insignia of three crowns into his own coat of arms, the Swedes interpreted this as a Danish claim over Sweden. Denmark–Norway had territory surrounding Sweden which appeared threatening, and the Sound Dues were a continuing irritation for the Swedes. Sweden was very successful during the Thirty Years' War, while Denmark–Norway failed to make gains. It is adopted from the Oldenburg dynasty's official title.  The earliest identified source for the name Scandinavia is Pliny the Elder's Natural History, dated to the first century AD. Although the Danish-Norwegian assault began as a great success, the Swedes led by 19-year-old Charles XI counter-attacked and took back the land that was being occupied. Writing in the capacity of a Roman admiral, he introduces the northern region by declaring to his Roman readers that there are 23 islands "Romanis armis cognitae" ("known to Roman arms") in this area. Norwegians were also well represented in the military, civil service and business elites of Denmark–Norway, and in the administration of the colonies in the Caribbean and elsewhere. Finland was never a separate kingdom, and was completely integrated with Sweden, while Denmark was the dominant component in a personal union. After a huge loss in the war, Denmark–Norway was forced in the Treaty of Roskilde to give Sweden nearly half its territory. I am danish and have lived in Sweden for five years. Sweden is seen as the most advanced country in terms of technology. A small minority of Scandinavians are Sami people, concentrated in the extreme north of Scandinavia. During the French Revolutionary Wars Denmark–Norway at first tried to stay neutral, so it could continue its trade with both France and the United Kingdom, but when it entered the League of Armed Neutrality, the British considered it a hostile action, and attacked Copenhagen in 1801 and again in 1807.  There is a generous welfare system in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. , This article is about Scandinavia as a cultural-linguistic region. Centralisation was supported in many parts of Norway, where the two-year attempt by Sweden to control Trøndelag had met strong local resistance and resulted in a complete failure for the Swedes and a devastation of the province.  The geographical features have been identified in various ways. The corresponding adjective and demonym is Dano-Norwegian. The Scandinavian Mountains block the mild and moist air coming from the southwest, thus northern Sweden and the Finnmarksvidda plateau in Norway receive little precipitation and have cold winters. Thus the Thirty Years' War facilitated rise of Sweden as a great power, while it marked the start of decline for the Danes. The period from 1735 until his death in 1746 has been nicknamed "the State Pietism", as new laws and regulations were established in favor of Pietism. The terms Fennoscandia and Fennoscandinavia are sometimes used in a broader, political sense to refer to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. Arkivalier før 1848. , Two language groups have coexisted on the Scandinavian peninsula since prehistory—the North Germanic languages (Scandinavian languages) and the Sami languages.. The Dano-Swedish War (1657–1658), a part of the Second Northern War, was one of the most devastating wars for the Dano-Norwegian kingdom. Sweden and Norway were thus united under the Swedish monarch, but Finland's inclusion in the Russian Empire excluded any possibility for a political union between Finland and any of the other Nordic countries. Artikel-Nr. This folio map is an original copper engraving from 1787. Tafjord has recorded 17.9 °C in January and Sunndal 18.9 °C in February. A personal union, entered into by the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway in 1536, lasted until 1814. Following the introduction of absolutism in 1660, the centralisation of government meant a concentration of institutions in Copenhagen.  In modernity, Scandinavia is a peninsula, but between approximately 10,300 and 9,500 years ago the southern part of Scandinavia was an island separated from the northern peninsula, with water exiting the Baltic Sea through the area where Stockholm is now located. , Nordic countries is used unambiguously for Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland, including their associated territories (Svalbard, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and the Åland Islands).. The term "Denmark–Norway" reflects the historical and legal roots of the union. - Text in deutsch, englisch und französisch. The North Germanic languages of Scandinavia are traditionally divided into an East Scandinavian branch (Danish and Swedish) and a West Scandinavian branch (Norwegian, Icelandic and Faroese), but because of changes appearing in the languages since 1600 the East Scandinavian and West Scandinavian branches are now usually reconfigured into Insular Scandinavian (ö-nordisk/øy-nordisk) featuring Icelandic and Faroese and Continental Scandinavian (Skandinavisk), comprising Danish, Norwegian and Swedish.. For the broader group of northern European countries including Finland and Iceland, see, For a more in-depth look at the history of the region, see, Appearance in medieval Germanic languages. Pulsiano, Phillip, and Paul Leonard Acker.  The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate intergovernmental promotion of the two countries. The last remaining forts were sold to the United Kingdom in 1850. Owing to the close proximity, there is still a great deal of borrowing from the Swedish and Norwegian languages in the Finnish and Sami languages. Nordic territories that are not part of Scandinavia: Scandinavia[b] (/ˌskændɪˈneɪviə/ SKAN-dih-NAY-vee-ə) is a subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. Schleswig-Holstein was conquered by Prussia and after Prussia's success in the Franco-Prussian War a Prussian-led German Empire was created and a new power-balance of the Baltic sea countries was established. , Debate about which meaning is more appropriate is complicated by the fact that usage in English is different from usage in the Scandinavian languages themselves (which use Scandinavia in the narrow meaning), and by the fact that the question of whether a country belongs to Scandinavia is politicised: people from the Nordic world beyond Norway, Denmark and Sweden may be offended at being either included in or excluded from the category of "Scandinavia". The Second war of Schleswig followed in 1864, a brief but disastrous war between Denmark and Prussia (supported by Austria). "Corporate social responsibility and sustainability in Scandinavia: An overview. Norway had been in a closer union with Denmark, but Denmark-Norway 's alliance with Napoleonic France caused the United Kingdom and Russia to consent to Sweden's annexation of the realm as compensation for the loss of Finland in 1809 and as a reward for joining the alliance against Napoleon. The background for the proposal was the tumultuous events during the Napoleonic Wars in the beginning of the century. Discover glittering fjords, Viking ships, and cool, contemporary cities. Weitere Informationen zu diesem Verkäufer | Verkäufer kontaktieren 25. Norway (including Bohuslän, Härjedalen, Jämtland and Idre and Särna on the Scandinavian Peninsula and its island colonies Iceland, Greenland, Faroe Islands. No directions for hikes or similar. Various references to the region can also be found in Pytheas, Pomponius Mela, Tacitus, Ptolemy, Procopius and Jordanes, usually in the form of Scandza. , Thus, Scandinavians always include Scandinavian-speaking Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes (and, earlier, speakers of the North Germanic languages). The economies of the countries of Scandinavia are amongst the strongest in Europe. Norway benefited militarily from the combined strength of Denmark–Norway in the wars with Sweden and economically from its trade relationship with Denmark in which Norwegian industry enjoyed a legal monopoly in Denmark while Denmark supplied Norway with agricultural products. This led to most of the German Protestant states ceasing their support for Christian IV. These terms cover the "royal territories" of the Oldenburgs as it was in 1460, excluding the "ducal territories" of Schleswig and Holstein. Gallie, Duncan. Yes, Finland and Norway have lower deaths than Sweden—but they have actually been more laissez-faire than their neighbor for the majority of the pandemic. Norway Sweden and Denmark | | ISBN: 9785875399565 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Malone, Kemp (1924). The gorgeous Stockholm in Sweden (Image: Michelle Maria/Wikimedia Commons) Sweden is currently exempt from the government's advice against all but essential foreign travel due to an assessment of the Covid-19 risks there. The last settlements it had control over were sold to the United Kingdom in 1845. Norway and Denmark are to drop border controls between the two countries but have excluded their Scandinavian neighbour Sweden, which has taken a … Colonies included the town of Tranquebar and Serampore. "Local government in Scandinavia: autonomous or integrated into the welfare state?." There was however one other religious "reformation" in the kingdom during the rule of Christian VI, a follower of Pietism. The Åland Islands, an autonomous province of Finland situated in the Baltic Sea between Finland and Sweden, are entirely Swedish-speaking.  Consonant gradation is a feature in both Finnish and northern Sami dialects, but it is not present in south Sami, which is considered to have a different language history. Rome2rio is a door-to-door travel information and booking engine, helping you get to and from any location in the world. The Treaty of Kiel (14 January 1814) formally dissolved the Dano-Norwegian union and ceded the territory of Norway proper to the King of Sweden, but Denmark retained Norway's overseas possessions. Our Scandinavia experts are … Teilen: Jetzt Facebook-Fan werden. So when in Denmark, I always withdraw cash from an ATM. In 1607 Charles IX declared himself "King of the Lapps in Nordland", and started collecting taxes in Norwegian territory. Danske kancelli 1454–1848, Rigsarkivets Samlinger. The Dano-Norwegian union lasted until 1814, when the Treaty of Kiel decreed that Norway (except for the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Greenland) be ceded to Sweden. The other Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway are all-year-round destinations. However, Sweden achieved an exemption from the Sound Toll, which had only previously been secured by England and the Dutch Republic. Even after 1660, Denmark–Norway consisted of three formally separate parts, and Norway kept its separate laws and some institutions, and separate coinage and army. Denmark had lost its provinces in Scania after the Treaty of Roskilde and was always eager to retrieve them, but as Sweden had grown into a great power it would not be an easy task. "Ptolemy's Skandia". "Taxation and market work: is Scandinavia an outlier?. In a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, and with this feeling I wrote the poem immediately after my return: 'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians!'". The majority national languages of these three belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, and are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. According to Pliny, the "clarissima" ("most famous") of the region's islands is Scatinavia, of unknown size. They're all good countries, according to European bestdestination.com.. buh you have to give it to Sweden,. Despite many wars over the years since the formation of the three kingdoms, Scandinavia has been politically and culturally close. Since June, Finland and Norway have had less restrictive government policies than Sweden, and both nations have endured the coronavirus remarkably well. The Swedish king also proposed a unification of Denmark, Norway and Sweden into a single united kingdom. From the 17th century, the kingdoms acquired colonies in Africa, the Caribbean and India. Versand: EUR 9,53. In recent substrate studies, Sami linguists have examined the initial cluster sk- in words used in Sami and concluded that sk- is a phonotactic structure of alien origin.  A small area along the northern coast east of the North Cape has tundra climate (Et) as a result of a lack of summer warmth. Rather the word was brought into use in Europe by scholars borrowing the term from ancient sources like Pliny, and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula.. Rome2rio makes travelling from Denmark to Norway easy. Finnish speakers constitute a language minority in Sweden and Norway. Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, with Excursions to Iceland and Spitzbergen, Handbook for Travellers [2 volumes Eighth and Ninth Editions, 1903 and 1909] [nach diesem Titel suchen] Published by the author 1903 and 1909, Liepzig, 1903. The Norwegian Privy Council was abolished—it assembled for the Swedes in a personal union, war! Tundra climate [ 8 ] the geographical features have been identified in various ways forts were to... Established and formed the Kalmar union in 1536, but has relatively mild weather for its latitude due to 's... Goffart, Walter ( 2005 ), `` Jordanes ’ s Getica and the Sound Dues were a continuing for! Rome2Rio is a door-to-door travel information and booking engine, helping you get to and from location!: Anzahl: 1 in den denmark, norway, sweden Preis: EUR 57,74 reluctant to Sweden! Either of the ice age, which is considered to refer to the of... 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