climate change scientists

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Wigley was born in Adelaide, Australia, in 1940. Here are a few of those milestones: 1859 – John Tyndall discovers that some gases block infrared radiation. The early anthropogenic hypothesis: challenges and responses, Lennart Bengtsson resigns: GWPF voices shock and concern at the extent of intolerance within the climate science community. Richard S. Lindzen, “On the theory of the diurnal tide,” Monthly Weather Review, 1966, 94: 295 — 301. We now know that thinking was wrong. He is a Member of the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the Japan Academy, the European Academy, and the Royal Society of Canada. See also Category:Climatologists and List of authors of Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. While activists and politicians issue doomsday warnings, most scientists have a … Our position is simple. If this is going to continue I will be unable to conduct my normal work and will even start to worry about my health and safety. The idea for which Lindzen is best known, though, is undoubtedly the “adaptive infrared iris” conjecture. Climate Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols in China and India. And also because the slow and painful advance towards truth is best served by the open and honest airing of disagreement. In part, this has meant developing new and refining old “proxies” correlated with climate change, such as tree-ring patterns (which vary in width from year to year as a function of temperature and other factors). That year, he returned to Japan, where he was appointed Director of the Global Warming Research Division of the Frontier Research System for Global Change  — now known as the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Research Institute for Global Change  — a position he held until 2001. Altogether, Wigley has invested well over 20 years of his career into perfecting MAGICC, upon which much of our ability to make reliable simulations of climate change rests. John R. Christy, Written Testimony, House Ways and Means Committee, February 25, 2009. He holds a Ph.D. in hydrology (1977) from the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Models for radiative and photochemical processes. Bengtsson and his co-authors maintained that the uncertainties are greater than the IPCC Assessment Reports claim. He spent a year as an IBM Einstein Fellow at the highly prestigious Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey (2014 — 2015). Hansen’s own research on these questions began with his studies of Venus, culminating in his now widely accepted theory that that planet’s extremely high surface temperatures are due to a runaway greenhouse effect. She also gave testimony some half dozen times between 2006 and 2015 to Senate and House subcommittees, expressing in several of them her concerns about the politicization of the usual scientific process in the area of climate change. I had not expecting [sic] such an enormous world-wide pressure put at me from a community that I have been close to all my active life. Webster, “Climate science and the uncertainty monster,” Bulletin of the Meteorological Society, 2011, 175: 1667 — 1682. She has taught at the University of Wisconsin, Purdue University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Colorado at Boulder, and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech). ”Climate Change and the Cosmic Ray Connection," in Richard C. Ragaini, ed., ”On climate response to changes in the cosmic ray flux and radiative budget,". Models for radiative and photochemical processes,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 1965, 22: 341 — 48. 1. 5. Oldfield, eds., “The early-Anthropocene hypothesis,” The Holocene (Special Issue), 2011, 21(5): 713 — 879. Solomon was the third-most-highly cited geoscientist in the world during the decade of the 1990s according to Science Watch newsletter. He received his Ph.D. in geophysics from the University of Tokyo in 1958. Researchers at Cardiff University found that scientists specialising in climate … Ruddiman is the author or co-author of some 140 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, as well as the author, co-author, or editor of some dozen books, journal special issues, and technical reports. James E. Hansen and Satoshi Matsushima, “The Atmosphere and Surface Temperature of Venus: A Dust Insulation Model,” Astrophysical Journal, 1967, 150: 1139 — 1157. In recent years, Shaviv has become an active critic of the results and predictions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other organizations supporting the consensus view. This was an illustration in a 1999 paper of Mann’s (with two co-authors) showing mean surface temperature anomaly (departures from an reference value, or “calibration period”) in C° for the Northern Hemisphere during the past millennium.[5]. Authors of seven climate consensus studies — including Naomi Oreskes, Peter Doran, William Anderegg, Bart Verheggen, Ed Maibach, J. Stuart Carlton, and John Cook — co-authored a paper that should settle the expert climate consensus question once and for all. This work turned out to be critically important for the development a comprehensive, general, and realistic circulation model of the earth’s atmosphere. This work enabled him to reconstruct the biogeochemical carbon cycle, as well as the influence of climate change on polar ice and ocean sediments, among other important results. Michael E. Mann, Raymond S. Bradley, and Malcolm K. Hughes, “Northern Hemisphere Temperatures During the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations,” Geophysical Research Letters, 1999, 26: 759 — 762; the original hockey stick graph is Fig. [8] Other climate-related phenomena he has studied intensively include anthropogenic “brown clouds,” consisting of soot (or black carbon), which are plentiful over the Indian Ocean. ”Global Warming and Water Resources  — From Basic Science to Environmental Studies," in Yoshitsugu Hayashi, et al., eds.. ”Climate sensitivity and past climates: evidence from numerical studies," in W.H. If correct, this phenomenon would be reason for optimism that global warming might be to some extent self-limiting. That said, we do not feel under any obligation to give “equal time” to both sides. Shaviv emphasizes (see the video clip, below) that “science is not a democracy” and all that matters is the evidence for these claims — which he finds deficient. By Sonia Elks LONDON Climate change could undo decades of work reducing malnutrition, scientists said on Thursday in a study finding that children in developing countries with rising temperatures are eating poorer diets. Please note that the two sub-lists are alphabetical. Jones, Mann, Wigley, and the others stoutly defended their innocence, insisting that the cited passages were being taken out of context. In 2011, she moved to MIT, where she is currently Lee and Geraldine Martin Professor of Environmental Studies in the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences (with a joint appointment in the Chemistry Department). Climate change (or, as some insist on saying, global warming) is one of the most prominent scientific, political, and even  — as many would claim  — moral issues of our time. 3 on p. 761. More recently, Broecker has been involved in work on carbon sequestration. The science is clear: climate change is happening. In 1988, he catapulted into the national limelight as a result of testimony he gave before the US Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee that is widely considered a turning point in the history of climate change as a public policy issue. He was a signatory of the 2003 American Geophysical Union’s (AGU) statement on climate change, although he has stated that he was “very upset” by the AGU’s more extreme 2007 statement.[15]. Karoly/Tamblyn vs Happer Global Warming Debate, Statement of Dr. James Hansen, Director, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. This means, among other things, that mainstream climate scientists who roundly condemn climate skeptics for seeking support from private industry ought to be a bit more circumspect, seeing that they themselves receive millions in financial backing from government agencies. Bengtsson is best known to the general public due to a dispute which arose in 2014 over a paper he and his colleagues had submitted to Environmental Research Letters, but which was rejected for publication for what Bengtsson believed to be “activist” reasons. He continued to refine and update the model for many years after his move to NCAR in Colorado. Scientists have studied global warming for more than 100 years. You might be asking yourself: “If I wanted to become a climate scientist and contribute to this work, how should I go about it? In the spring of 2010, this group released a report exonorating Jones and all the other scientists involved. Ruddiman, M.C. To which we respond: So much the worse for intellectual fashion. He then gradually expanded this model to two and then three dimensions. In an interview with the BBC from 2007, he accused the IPCC process of gross politicization and scientists of succumbing to “group-think” and “herd instinct.”[16]; In 2009, he made the following statement in testimony to the House Ways and Means Committee (altogether, he has testified before Congress some 20 times): From my analysis, the actions being considered to “stop global warming” will have an imperceptible impact on whatever the climate will do, while making energy more expensive, and thus have a negative impact on the economy as a whole. Hansen was born in Denison, Iowa, in 1941. He maintains, not only that anthropogenic greenhouse gases have played a smaller role in global warming than is usually believed, but also that the earth’s climate system is not nearly so sensitive as is usually assumed. Wigley is the author or co-author of more than 150 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, as well as the author or editor of two books (see below). However, Mann has been stalwart in defending the integrity of his methodology and the fundamental correctness of the graph, and many other climate scientists from around the world have sprung to his and the graph’s defense, as well. Mann has authored or co-authored more than 200 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, as well as delivering countless invited lectures and presentations. ”On the link between cosmic rays and terrestrial climate”, ”Interstellar-terrestrial relations: variable cosmic environments, the dynamic heliosphere, and their imprints on terrestrial archives and climate,". But if the choice of topic is self-evident, the selection of individuals we have made for this list, and especially the way we have gone about it, certainly require explanation. Lindzen tells the story of his discovery of the QBO in the following semi-autobiographical paper: Richard S. Lindzen, “On the development of the theory of the QBO,” Bulletin of the American Meteorologcal Society, 1987, 68: 329 — 37. Most of his career has been spent with the University of East Anglia’s Climatic Research Unit (CRU), which he served as Director from 1998 until 2016. He holds a Ph.D. (1958) in geology from Columbia University. Climate science and the uncertainty monster. William F. Ruddiman, “The early anthropogenic hypothesis: challenges and responses,” Reviews of Geophysics, 2007, 45: RG4001; see, also, W.F. I see no limit and end to what will happen. four in physics, including mathematical/theoretical physics. Few global trends have been as controversial as climate change and the Earth’s warming. I would never have expecting [sic] anything similar in such an original peaceful community as meteorology. Here are the criteria we applied to make our selection: Simply stated, we maintain that appeals to authority and scurrilous ad hominem attacks are no substitute for rational argument. In 1986  — 1987, Solomon led a team to Antarctica to make measurements and take samples to test her hypothesis  — which was confirmed. Richard McNider and John Christy, “Why Kerry is flat wrong on climate change” (Wall Street Journal website, February 19, 2014). In 2016, more than 150 of Australia’s climate scientists wrote an open letter to the then prime minister, Malcolm Turnbull, demanding immediate action on reducing emissions. He holds a Ph.D. (1967) in mathematical physics from the University of Adelaide. And the more scientists know, the more they may feel compelled to share, especially when it comes to a topic as far-reaching and potentially devastating as climate change. scholars will be in a position to investigate this whole disgraceful episode in the history of science more objectively, they will find plenty of blame to go around. Mitchell’s current work for the Met Office includes keeping a watching brief on climate science internationally, handling concerns of those skeptical about climate change, and working with other Research Fellows to ensure they make an effective contribution to the Met Office research program. The list includes scientists from several specialities or disciplines. She is best known for her hypothesis that the hole in the ozone layer of the stratosphere that had opened up above the polar regions sometime during the 1970s was the result of interaction with man-made chemicals, especially chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), widely used at that time in refrigerants. Crucially, as we note in our paper: Crucially, as we note in our paper: Public perception of the scientific consensus has been found to be a gateway belief, affecting other climate beliefs and … To boil all these scientists down to 15 names, we had to be extremely selective. He has won numerous awards, prizes, and other honors, including the National Medal of Science in 1997 and the Crafoord Prize in Geosciences in 2006. Manabe is the author or co-author of a great many peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, some of the best-known and/or most important of which are listed below. Christy has not been shy about publicizing his views, making many of the same points in an op-ed piece he published with a colleague in 2014 in the Wall Street Journal. 15. And because this means that the essence of rational inquiry is intellectual humility. When Bengtsson voiced his displeasure over the rejection of his paper, and mainstream scientists noticed his new affiliation with the GWPF, intense pressure was brought to bear, both in public and behind the scenes, to force Bengtsson to recant his criticism of the journal in question and to resign from the GWPF. He has been especially critical of the notion that the “science is settled.” In a 2009 Wall Street Journal op-ed, he maintained that the science is far from settled and that “[c]onfident predictions of catastrophe are unwarranted.”[27] For his trouble, Lindzen has suffered the usual brutal, ad hominem attacks from the climate-change establishment. He has also been one of the most tireless defenders of the mainstream view on climate change in the popular and political arena; to this end, he has given government testimony, co-founded the RealClimate.org website, and written a great many essays, book reviews, op-ed pieces, and other articles aimed at a broad public. And, if the Congress deems it necessary to reduce CO2 emissions, the single most effective way to do so by a small, but at least detectable, amount is through the massive implementation of a nuclear power program.[17]. In a 2014 paper published with several collaborators, Ramanathan suggested that reducing methane, carbonaceous aerosol particles (soot), ozone, and hydrofluorocarbons in the atmosphere  — even leaving carbon dioxide to one side  — could still significantly slow the expected rise in sea level due to global warming. He holds a Ph.D. in theoretical physics (1973) from Queen’s University Belfast. We need to act now. In fact, the basic chemistry and physics of climate change and the greenhouse effect have been well understood for more than a century. Labeyrie, eds., ”Climate model simulations of the equilibrium climatic response to increased carbon dioxide,", ”Climate simulations for 9000 years before present: seasonal variations and effect of the Laurentide ice sheet,". Bengtsson is an Honorary Member of the American Meteorological Society (AMS), a Member of the New York Academy of Sciences and the Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte, an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Meteorological Society (UK), and a Fellow of the Swedish Academy of Science, the Finnish Academy of Science, and the European Academy. Having retired in 2013 as Director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, where he spent a career spanning some four and a half decades, Hansen is currently Adjunct Professor at Columbia University and Director of the Program on Climate Science, Awareness and Solutions in Columbia’s Earth Institute. The Solomon Glacier in Antarctica is named in her honor. Wigley, “A combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to climate stabilization," Science, 2006, 314: 452 — 454. Climate scientists know more about how the climate is changing and what it means for our future than anyone else, including journalists, world leaders and the general public. Climate change worsening Australia's extreme weather: scientists Australia's extreme weather stands to get even worse over the coming decades, the country's top scientists warned this week ”Temperature changes in the bulk atmosphere: beyond the IPCC," in Patrick J. Michaels, ed., ”A comparison of tropical temperature trends with model predictions,", ”What do observational datasets say about modeled tropospheric temperature trends since 1979?,", ”IPCC: cherish it, tweak it or scrap it?,", ”The international surface temperature initiative global land surface databank: monthly temperature data release description and methods,", ”Dynamics of fronts in thermally bi-stable fluids,", ”Origin of the high energy extragalactic diffuse gamma ray background,", ”The Eddington luminosity limit for multiphased media,", ”The theory of steady-state super-Eddington winds and its application to novae,", ”The spiral structure of the Milky Way, cosmic rays, and ice age epochs on Earth,", ”Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate?,". The two key conclusions from the paper are:Expert consensus results on the question of human-caused global warming among the previous studies published by th… Ramanathan was born in Chennai (then Madras) in the state of Tamil Nadu in India, in 1944. First, in work done during the 1980s with his student Maureen Raymo and others, he conjectured that the tectonic uplift of the Himalaya Mountains and the Tibetan Plateau during the late Cenozoic era (roughly three million years ago) caused a reduction in atmospheric CO2 due to an increase in chemical weathering. Christy was born in Fresno, California, in 1951. From 2002 until 2008, he was the Hadley Centre’s Chief Scientist, and from 2008 until 2010, he was its Director of Climate Science. [10] The recipient of numerous grants, awards, and other honors, he is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the American Geophysical Union, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Does the earth have an adaptive infrared iris?, ”Simulated climatology of a general circulation model with a hydrologic cycle,", ”Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a given distribution of relative humidity,", ”Climate calculation with a combined ocean-atmosphere model,", ”Interhemispheric asymmetry in climate response to a gradual increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide,", ”Climatic response to a gradual increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide,", ”Transient response of coupled ocean-atmosphere model to gradual changes of atmospheric CO, ”Transient response of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to gradual changes of atmospheric CO, ”Study of abrupt climate change by a coupled ocean-atmosphere model,", ”Exploring natural and anthropogenic variation of climate,", ”Equilibrium response of thermohaline circulation to large changes in atmospheric CO, ”Simulated long-term changes in river discharge and soil moisture due to global warming,". The graph clearly shows two phases: a mostly flat phase (the hockey stick “handle”) during roughly nine-tenths of the period since 1000 AD, followed by a sharply increasing phase (the hockey stick “blade”) beginning around 1900 and continuing until 1998, the year before the paper was published. Mitchell was born in 1948 in the United Kingdom. [2] After that, Hansen and his team studied how sooty aerosol particles (“black carbon”), produced by the incomplete burning of coal, impact cloud formation, hence atmospheric and ground temperatures.[3]. More than 3,000 scientists on Friday called for a far bigger global push to protect people and nature from the effects of a heating planet, even as researchers estimated funding to adapt to climate change has dropped because of the COVID-19 pandemic.. Shaviv was born in Ithaca, New York, in 1972, but was raised in Israel. ”Climate sensitivity: model dependence of results," in A. Berger, et al., eds., ”The ’greenhouse' effect and climate change,", ”Greenhouse warming: is the mid-Holocene a good analogue?,", ”The equilibrium response to doubling atmospheric CO, ”Climate response to increasing levels of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols,", ”A fully coupled GCM simulation of the climate of the mid-Holocene,", ”Causes of twentieth-century temperature change near the Earth’s surface,", ”Quantifying the uncertainty in forecasts of anthropogenic climate change,", ”The time-dependence of climate sensitivity,", ”Do models underestimate the solar contribution to recent climate change? He ranks among the top one-half of one percent of highly cited researchers in geosciences, as calculated by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). The Climate Threat We Can Beat: What It Is and How to Deal With It. Climate Change is the defining issue of our time and we are at a defining moment. Roger Pielke, Jr., Tom Wigley, and Christopher Green, “Dangerous assumptions,” Nature, 2008, 452: 531 — 532; see, also, T.M.L. He is currently Distinguished Professor of Atmospheric Science and Director of the Earth System Science Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Wigley, working with colleague Sarah Raper, developed MAGICC largely during his tenure with the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) at the University of East Anglia, where he served as Director from 1979 until 1993. A few of the most influential and otherwise important of these are listed below. Apparently it has been transformed in recent years.[14]. She was a contributing author for the Third Assessment Report, and Co-Chair of Working Group I for the Fourth Assessment Report. The tacit assumption behind their indignation  — that only private actors have material interests, while public actors are by definition impartial seekers after truth  — simply won’t wash. We strongly suspect that in, say, 100 years' time, when (we hope!) ”The maximal runaway temperature of Earth-like planets”, ”Quantifying the role of solar radiative forcing over the 20th century,", ”The sensitivity of the greenhouse effect to changes in the concentration of gases in planetary atmospheres,", ”An outburst from a massive star 40 days before a supernova explosion,". In 2017, under a torrent of criticism from her colleagues and negative stories in the media, she was forced to take early retirement from her position as Professor in the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at Georgia Tech, a position she had held for 15 years (during 11 of those years, she had been Chair of the School). Christy is the author or co-author of numerous peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters (for a selection of a few of his best-known articles, see below). Critics claimed these passages showed (1) the contempt in which mainstream scientists held those who disagreed with them; (2) behind-the-scenes efforts they were making to pull political strings with the UN-sponsored Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and certain academic journals to ensure that skeptical viewpoints would be excluded; and, above all, collusion in downplaying or even falsifying data that did not support the mainstream view. Lindzen was a Contributor to Chapter 4 of the 1995 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Second Assessment, and to Chapter 7 of the 2001 IPCC Working Group 1 (WG1). Female scientists focus on a secret weapon to fight climate change: Moms A new group of parent scientists is launching Science Moms, a $10 million educational campaign to … With the programs and all school search, finder, or other information... Researching the evidence for a link between global warming might be to some self-limiting. 100 years. 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